A Game-Theoretic Exploration of the Bystander Effect

by Niene Tempelman, Hester van der Weij, & Evelien van Meeteren
2645 words



Literature Review


           The Effects of a Criminal Record
           The Effects of a Reward





Chekroun, P., & Brauer, M. (2002). The bystander effect and social control behavior: the effect of the presence of others on people’s reactions to norm violations. European Journal of Social Psychology, 32(6), 853–867.

Darley, J. M., & Latané, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8(4), 377-383.

Dawes, R. M. (1973). The commons dilemma game: An n-person mixed motive game with a dominant strategy for defection. Oregon Research Institution Research Bulletin, 13(2), 1-12.

Diekmann, A. (1985). Volunteer’s Dilemma. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 29(4), 605–610.

Gansberg, M. (1964, March 27). 37 who saw murder didn’t call the police; apathy at stabbing of Queens woman shocks inspector. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/1964/03/27/archives/37-who-saw-murder-didnt-call-the-police-apathy-at-stabbing-of.html

Jancelewicz, C. (2016, June 15). Kitty Genovese murder: ‘The Witness’ documentary questions everything we know. Global News. https://globalnews.ca/news/2763400/kitty-genovese-murder-the-witness-documentary-questions-everything-we-know/

van Lange, P. A. M., Rockenbach, B., & Yamagishi, T. (2014). Reward and Punishment in Social Dilemmas: an Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University press.

Latané, B., & Nida, S. (1981). Ten years of research on group size and helping. Psychological bulletin, 89(2), 308-324.

Leung, K., & Bond, M. H. (1984). The impact of cultural collectivism on reward allocation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47(4), 793–804.

Thomas, K. A., De Freitas, J., DeScioli, P., & Pinker, S. (2016). Recursive mentalizing and common knowledge in the bystander effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145(5), 621–629.

Wetboek van Strafrecht. (1984). https://www.uwwet.nl/wetten-en-regelingen/strafrecht/wetboek-van-strafrecht/49-levensgevaar-hulp-dood-strafbaar-straf.htm